Southern Tin Granite Beaches
Toba Caldera National Geopark
Sumatra Utara Indonesia
Super Volcano eruption, Caldera Landscape development
Lake Toba is situated in Sumatera Island, formed by a mega-volcanic eruptions 74,000 years ago, is the largest with-in the Quaternary. It is the ‘super volcano’ eruption (VEI> 8) which produced 2,800 km³ pyroclastics materials, where 2,000 km³ of volcanic-ash dispersed to W-NW directions, and also distributes of sulfuric-acid aerosol to the atmosphere which is deposited in the Antartic areas. The environment of Lake Toba region with a particular micro-climate environment, have ‘endemic’ flora and fauna ecosystem, and also the various Batak Cultures which reflects the local-wisdom.
Ancient Permian Jambi flora capped by Volcanic processes and fluvial processes.
Merangin Geopark, located in Merangin Regency, Jambi Province, has an area of 1,699 km2, with wide distribution of Jambi flora fossils of 290 million years old. The fossil is a proof that the old land Merangin be evidence of the spread of Cathaysian flora, and became a reference in every reconstruction of plate movement.
Jawa Barat Indonesia
Subduction zone uplifted rocks, Jampang Plateau landscape, Ancient magmatic zone shifting, Fore arc evolution.
Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark is located in Sukabumi Regency, West Jawa Province, Indonesia. This Geopark has an outstanding geological features of oldest rock formation, horseshoe-shaped landscape and geyser; biodiversity of rafflesia padma; and culture diversity such as the traditional agriculture and rice harvest thanksgiving ceremony known as Seren Taun and heritage site of Megalithic era.
Nusa Tenggara Barat Indonesia
Recent Caldera Landscape & its active volcano formation
Rinjani Geopark is part of the province of West Nusa Tenggara . It has extensive delineation ± 2,800 km2 , covering 5 districts / cities : distric of North Lombok, district of East Lombok , district of Central Lombok, district of West Lombok and Mataram City. It has a potential 22 geo diversities, 8 bio diversities, and 17 culture diversities that make Lombok Geopark Rinjani becomes leading tourism destination In Lombok Island. Collaboration between government as steering function and society as executive function is a key in the development of Lombok Geopark Rinjani. Community empowerment as actor in the management gives the effect of increasing prosperity that is continuously improved in terms of knowledge, skills, and mentoring.
Gunung Sewu Geopark
Yogyakarta – Jawa Tengah Indonesia
Conical Karst landscape with extensive caves, Uplifted beaches
Became a UNESCO Global Geopark on September 19, 2015, Gunung Sewu is a showcase of high aesthetic value of tropic conical karst landscapes in southern part of Java. The closely related between geodiversity and endemic flora-fauna, ecosystems, as well as intangible cultures diversities is an Earth’s heritage that formed a complete history of area of 40 million years ago until now. Prehistoric man who ever lived together with rhinos and hippos that now extinct is a portrait of the circumstances of about 10,000-4,000 years ago. The locals experience benefits of Geopark from geotourism, education, and education aspects.
Caldera landscape evolution, with pyroclastic surge and strombolian type eruption and high temperature lava flows
Located in northern part of Bali, Indonesia, Batur active volcano with its double-calderas has a very beuatiful lanscape phenomenon. Landscape of double-calderas, active volcanic cones, lake, lava flows, cinder cones and maar is a unified volcanic morphology that became a history of the dynamics of volcanism phenomenon over tens of thousands years ago to present time. “Caldera in caldera” that is rarely found elsewhere.
Sumatra Barat, Indonesia
Landscape of Great Sumatra fault and its extensional tectonic activities
Pangandaran is a town and district of Pangandaran Regency within the province of West Java, Indonesia. It is located on the southern coast of the island of Java. Awell-known surfing beach has made Pangandaran a popular tourist destination.
On 17 July 2006, an undersea earthquake measuring 7.7 on the moment magnitude scale triggered a tsunami which engulfed the resort area and caused destruction as far inland as half a kilometre. Over three hundred people from the town were killed.
Pangandaran is a large fishing village situated on a narrow isthmus with Pangandaran National Park occupying the entire headland. On either side to the east and to the west of Pangandaran village and the National Park isthmus are two beaches of volcanic black sand.
The Penanjung Pangandaran nature reserve is nearby on a peninsula connected to the mainland by a narrow neck of land. The isthmus is around 200 m wide. About eighty percent of the nature reserve is secondary rainforest. The flora of the nature reserve includes the Rafflesia.
Karst Gombong Selatan – Kebumen, Indonesia
Subduction zone uplifted rocks combined with conical hills landscape formation in fore arc region
Highland Mountainous Landscape formed by Recent volcanic activities
Dieng Plateau is a marshy plateau that forms the floor of a caldera complex on the Dieng Volcanic Complex near Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia. Referred to as “Dieng” by Indonesians, it sits at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level, far from major population centres. The name “Dieng” comes from Di Hyang which means “Abode of the Gods”.
The Plateau is the location eight small Hindu temples from the Kalingga Kingdom. It is unclear when they were built, estimated to range from mid 7th century to end of 8th century AD; they are the oldest known standing stone structures in Java. They are originally thought to have numbered 400 but only eight remain. The temples are now believed to have been named after the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata
Widespread dry land sandy caldera formed by Recent volcanic
Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo), is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 metres (7,641 ft) it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.
Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a plain called the “Sea of Sand (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Lautan Pasir), a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is also possible to take an organised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan (2,770 m or 9,088 ft) (Indonesian: Gunung Penanjakan). The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be reached on foot in about two hours.
The Ijen volcano complex is a group of stratovolcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia. It is inside a larger caldera Ijen, which is about 20 kilometers wide. The Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the highest point of that complex. The name “Gunung Merapi” means “mountain of fire” in the Indonesian language (api being “fire”); Mount Merapi in central Java and Marapi in Sumatra have the same etymology.
West of Gunung Merapi is the Ijen volcano, which has a one-kilometer-wide turquoise-colored acidic crater lake. The lake is the site of a labor intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are carried by hand from the crater floor. The work is paid well considering the cost of living in the area, but is very onerous. Workers earn around Rp 50,000 – 75,000 ($5.50-$8.30) per day and once out of the crater, still need to carry their loads of sulfur chunks about three kilometers to the nearby Paltuding Valley to get paid.
Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of post-caldera cones run east-west across the southern side of the caldera. The active crater at Kawah Ijen has a diameter of 722 metres (2,369 ft) and a surface area of 0.41 square kilometres (0.16 sq mi). It is 200 metres (660 ft) deep and has a volume of 36 cubic hectometres (29,000 acre·ft).
Recent catasthropic Plinian eruption with gigantic pyroclastic flows
Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia
The development Miocene Tower and table karst landscape
Maros is a town in the South Sulawesi province of Indonesia close to the provincial capital of Makassar. It is the capital of the Maros Regency. Maros is the location of the Indonesian Cereals Research Institute, a branch of the Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development.
In 2012, regional cement producer PT Semen Bosowa Maros began construction in Maros of a new clinker plant estimated to cost over $300 million. The clinker plant was expected to help the cement company increase production in the region in response to the growing demand for cement to support construction activities.
Mount Tondano in the province of North Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia, has a 20 × 30 km wide caldera which was formed in the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene formed by a massive eruption. Post caldera activity includes Pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows and geothermal areas in the caldera area. The Lake Tondano lies in the east side of the caldera.
In more recent times, the somma volcanoes of Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu have been constructed along the rim of the Tondano caldera, with Soputan being the youngest and most frequently active of the group. The Tondano caldera has been investigated as a potential source for geothermal energy to support the growing population in the vicinity of the caldera. Energy demand has been growing in Indonesia, and the Tondano caldera system could potentially provide clean energy for thousands of residents in northern Sulawesi.[
Papua Barat Indonesia
Island karst landscape, Recent Active uplifted widespread platform
Located off the northwest tip of Bird’s Head Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, in Indonesia’s West Papua province, Raja Ampat, or the Four Kings, is an archipelago comprising over 1,500 small islands, cays, and shoals surrounding the four main islands of Misool, Salawati, Batanta, and Waigeo, and the smaller island of Kofiau. The Raja Ampat archipelago is the part of Coral Triangle which contains the richest marine biodiversity on earth.
Raja Ampat Regency is a new regency which separated from Sorong Regency in 2004. The population of the Regency was recently (January 2014) put at 49, 048. It encompasses more than 40,000 km² of land and sea, which also contains Cenderawasih Bay, the largest marine national park in Indonesia. It is a part of the newly named West Papua province of Indonesia which was formerly Irian Jaya. Some of the islands are the most northern pieces of land in the Australian continent