Toba Caldera National Geopark, Sumatra Utara, Indonesia
Super Volcano eruption, Caldera Landscape development
Lake Toba is situated in Sumatera Island, formed by a mega-volcanic eruptions 74,000 years ago, is the largest with-in the Quaternary. It is the ‘super volcano’ eruption (VEI> 8) which produced 2,800 km³ pyroclastics materials, where 2,000 km³ of volcanic-ash dispersed to W-NW directions, and also distributes of sulfuric-acid aerosol to the atmosphere which is deposited in the Antartic areas. The environment of Lake Toba region with a particular micro-climate environment, have ‘endemic’ flora and fauna ecosystem, and also the various Batak Cultures which reflects the local-wisdom.