Tondano, Photo : Ron Agusta

Tondano, Photo : Ron Agusta

Tondano, Indonesia

Mount Tondano in the province of North Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia, has a 20 × 30 km wide caldera which was formed in the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene[2] formed by a massive eruption. Post caldera activity includes Pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows and geothermal areas in the caldera area. The Lake Tondano lies in the east side of the caldera.[1]

In more recent times, the somma volcanoes of Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu have been constructed along the rim of the Tondano caldera, with Soputan being the youngest and most frequently active of the group.[1] The Tondano caldera has been investigated as a potential source for geothermal energy to support the growing population in the vicinity of the caldera.[2] Energy demand has been growing in Indonesia, and the Tondano caldera system could potentially provide clean energy for thousands of residents in northern Sulawesi.[2]


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